Hartmut Richter
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Die Altkanarier wurden nicht ausgrottet


Die Altkanarier wurden nicht ausgerottet.

Die Altkanarier wurden nicht von den Spaniern ausgerottet was in vielen Veröffentlichumngen behauptet wird (z.B. Mühlbauer, Bolleter oder TeneriffaService). Nach Durchsicht der vorliegenden  Daten komme ich zu einem anderen Ergebnis.

In der heutigen Bevölkerung der kanarischen Inseln gibt es einen bedeutenden Anteil von Nachkommen der kanarischen Urbevölkerung (Altkanarier). Bei den Frauen sind es deutlich mehr als bei den Männern.

Anteil an der heutigen Bevölkerung auf den Kanaren mit Altkanarier-Vorfahren

                                    Vor Conquista          17. - 18. Jhdt                 heute

                      Männer       100%                    31+/- 14%                16+/-4,6%

                      Frauen        100%                     40+/-23%                  42+/-16%


Also: Mindestens 42% der heute auf den Kanarischen Inseln lebenden Frauen und 16% der heutigen Männer auf den Kanarischen Inseln stammen von den Urkanariern ab. Noch um 1700 n.Chr. waren es bei den Männern ca. 31%. Sie wurden demnach nicht ausgerottet.

Der Wert für die Männer könnte höher sein, weil in der hier zugrunde liegenden Studie das Vorkommen von E-M78 bei den Altkanariern als berbertypisches Merkmal gewertet wurde. Das ist aber nicht zulässig, weil Cruciani (HUMAN MUTATION Mutation in Brief #916 (2006) / Online / Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A Posteriori Evaluation of a Microsatellite-Network-Based Approach Through Six New Biallelic Markers. Fulvio Cruciani et al.) nachgewiesen hat, dass es eine Untergruppe von E-M78 gibt - E-M78α - die europäischen Ursprungs ist. Es gibt Hinweise darauf, dass diese Gruppe identisch mit E-V13 ist.


BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009 181
Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European
Rosa Fregel*1, Verónica Gomes2,3, Leonor Gusmão2, Ana M González1, Vicente M Cabrera1, António Amorim2 and Jose M Larruga1
1 Department of Genetics, University of La Laguna, Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez, La Laguna, 38271 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
2 Institute of Pathology and Molecular Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal and 3Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Email: Rosa Fregel* - rfregel@gmail.com; Verónica Gomes - vgomes@ipatimup.pt; Leonor Gusmão - lgusmao@ipatimup.pt; Ana M González - amglez@ull.es; Vicente M Cabrera - vcabrera@ull.es; António Amorim - aamorim@ipatimup.pt; Jose M Larruga - jlarruga@ull.es 

Background: The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times.

Results: Autochthonous (E-M81) and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267) Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population (42%) since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly (16%) being substituted by European lineages. Sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today.


Conclusion: The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.


European Journal of Human Genetics12 2004 155–162
Ancient mtDNA analysis and the origin of the Guanches 
Nicole Maca-Meyer 1, Matilde Arnay 2, Juan Carlos Rando 1, Carlos Flores 1,3,
Ana M Gonzalez 1, Vicente M Cabrera 1 andJose M Larruga*
1 Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; 2 Departamento de Prehistoria, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; 3 Unidad de Investigacio Hospital Universitario NS de Candelaria, Tenerife

The prehistoric colonisation of the Canary Islands by the Guanches (native Canarians) woke up great expectation about their origin, since the Europeans conquest of the Archipelago. Here, we report mitochondrial DNA analysis (HVRI sequences and RFLPs) of aborigine remains around 1000 years old. The sequences retrieved show that the Guanches possessed U6b1 lineages that are in the present day Canarian population, but not in Africans. In turn, U6b, the phylogenetically closest ancestor found in Africa, is not present in the Canary Islands. Comparisons with other populations relate the Guanches with the actual inhabitants of the Archipelago and with Moroccan Berbers. This shows that, despite the continuous changes suffered by the population (Spanish colonisation, slave trade), aboriginal mtDNA lineages constitute a considerable proportion of the Canarian gene pool. Although the Berbers are the most probable ancestors of the Guanches, it is deduced that important human movements have reshaped Northwest Africa after the migratory wave to the Canary Islands.



BMC Genetics 2003 15-26
Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography 
Nicole Maca-Meyer1, Ana M González1, José Pestano2, Carlos Flores1, José M Larruga1 and Vicente M Cabrera*1
1 Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, SPAIN 
2 Laboratorio de Genética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria, SPAIN . Email: Nicole Maca-Meyer - nmacame@ull.es; Ana M González - amglez@ull.es; José Pestano - jpestano@dbbf.ulpgc.es; Carlos Flores - cflores@ull.es; José M Larruga - jlarruga@ull.es; Vicente M Cabrera* -vcabrera@ull.es

Background: World-wide phylogeographic distribution of human complete mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested a West Asian origin for the autochthonous North African lineage U6. We report here a more detailed analysis of this lineage, unraveling successive expansions that affected not only Africa but neighboring regions such as the Near East, the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands.

Results: Divergence times, geographic origin and expansions of the U6 mitochondrial DNA clade, have been deduced from the analysis of 14 complete U6 sequences, and 56 different haplotypes, characterized by hypervariable segment sequences and RFLPs.

 Conclusions: The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion. U6b and U6c clades, restricted to West Africa, had more localized expansions. U6b probably reached the Iberian Peninsula during the Capsian diffusion in North Africa. Two autochthonous derivatives of these clades (U6b1 and U6c1) indicate the arrival of North African settlers to the Canarian Archipelago in prehistoric times, most probably due to the Saharan desiccation. The absence of these Canarian lineages nowadays in Africa suggests important demographic movements in the western area of this Continent. 

42% -73% of women in the Canary Islands

 are descended from the Ancient Canaries.


Ann. Hum. Genet. 63 1999 413–428
Phylogeographic patterns of mtDNA reflecting the colonization of the Canary Islands
"Departamento de GeneT tica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38271 La Laguna, Tenerife
#Mathematisches Seminar, Universitat Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany

Although the Canary Islands were settled by humans, possibly of Berber origin, as late as 2.500 years ago, the precise course and numbers of early migrations to the archipelago remain controversial. We have therefore analysed mtDNA variation (HVS-I as well as selected RFLP sites) in 300 individuals from the seven Canary Islands. The distribution and variation across the islands in a specific mtDNA clade of Northwest African ancestry suggest that there was one dominant initial settlement process that affected all the islands, from east to west. This indicates that a certain (33%) genetic affinity of present-day Canary Islanders to Northwest African Berbers mainly stems from the autochthonous population rather than slaves captured on the neighbouring African coast.


Annals of Human Genetics 60 1996 321-330
Genetic relationship between the Canary Islanders and their African and Spanish ancestors inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences

Nucleotide sequences of the hypervariable segment I of the control region of the mtDNA were determined in 101 individuals: 54 Canary Islanders, 18 North African Berbers, 18 Spanish mainlanders and 11 sub-Saharan Guineans. In spite of the fact that only members of the Fang tribe were analysed, nucleotide diversity in Guineans (θ× 100 = 2·33)is one of the highest found in African populations.

Estimates of genetic contribution to the Canarians from their putative parental populations based on mtDNA (43,25%± 1,38Berbers, 35,54 ± 0,55% Spanish, 21,21 ± 1,92% Guineans) showed an important North African substrate. These mtDNA results, when compared with data based on nuclear markers, point to a strong male-female asymmetry, 75% of the Spanish nuclear contribution was due to males and practically all the Berber and Guinean was due to females. These results are in agreement with the way that the Canary Islands were conquered.

Pairwise difference distributions in Guineans and Berbers are compatible with the model of populations in expansion. Departures from a Poisson distribution for the Canarians and Spanish can be explained by admixture and the way of sampling respectively.


HUMAN MUTATION  Mutation in Brief #916  (2006) / Online 
Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A Posteriori Evaluation of a Microsatellite-Network-Based Approach Through Six New Biallelic Markers 
Fulvio Cruciani1, Roberta La Fratta1, Antonio Torroni2, Peter A. Underhill3, and Rosaria Scozzari1,4
1Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Università "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 4Istituto di Biologia e Patologia Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy 

The human Y chromosome haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a) occurs commonly and is distributed in northern and eastern Africa, western Asia, and all of Europe. Previously, only two rarely observed internal biallelic markers (UEPs) were known within the E-M78 clade. Here we report the identification of six novel UEPs that significantly refine the phylogeny of this haplogroup. Then, we evaluate the correspondence between the newly defined sub- haplogroups and the E-M78 haplotype clusters previously identified by an 11-microsatellite loci-based network encompassing 232 chromosomes (Cruciani et al., 2004). We observed considerable correspondence between the trees generated by the two types of markers, but also noted important discrepancies between microsatellite and UEP findings. Overall, this analysis reveals that the currently visible terminal branches of the Y tree still contain a large amount of information, in terms of undiscovered biallelic markers, and that caution is needed when using the microsatellite alleles as surrogates of unique event polymorphisms. 


European Journal of Human Genetics 17 2009 1314–1324
The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma
Rosa Fregel*,1, Jose Pestano2, Matilde Arnay3, Vicente M Cabrera1, Jose M Larruga1 and Ana M Gonzalez 1́
1 Departamento de Genetica, Facultad de Biologıa, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife
2 Laboratorio de Prehistoria, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife
3 Departamento de Genetica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

 Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) 


were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands.


European Journal of Human Genetics 23 2015 1236–1243 
Isolation and prominent aboriginal maternal legacy in the present-day population of La Gomera (Canary Islands) 
Rosa Fregel*,1, Vicente M Cabrera1, José M Larruga1, Juan C Hernández2, Alejandro Gámez3, Jose J Pestano4, Matilde Arnay3 and Ana M González1 

The present-day population structure of La Gomera is outstanding in its high aboriginal heritage, the greatest in the Canary Islands. This was earlier confirmed by both mitochondrial DNA and autosomal analyses, although genetic drift due to the fifteenth century European colonization could not be excluded as the main factor responsible. The present mtDNA study of aboriginal remains and extant samples from the six municipal districts of the island indeed demonstrates that the pre-Hispanic colonization of La Gomera by North African people involved a strong founder event, shown by the high frequency of the indigenous Canarian U6b1a lineage in the aboriginal samples (65%). This value is even greater than that observed in the extant population (44%), which in turn is the highest of all the seven Canary Islands. In contrast to previous results obtained for the aboriginal populations of Tenerife and La Palma, haplogroups related to secondary waves of migration were not detected in La Gomera aborigines, indicating that isolation also had an important role in shaping the current population. The rugged relief of La Gomera divided into several distinct valleys probably promoted subsequent aboriginal intra-insular differentiation that has continued after the European colonization, as seen in the present-day population structure observed on the island. 




Journal of Archaeological Science 78 2017 20-28
Genetic studies on the prehispanic population buried in Punta Azul cave (El Hierro, Canary Islands)
Alejandra C. Ordóñez, R. Fregel, A. Trujillo-Mederos, Montserrat Hervella, Concepción de-la-Rúa, Matilde Arnay-de-la-Rosa

The aim of this study was to establish the genetic studies of the population from one of the most important known aboriginal funerary spaces of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands), the Punta Azul cave, which harbors remains of 127 individuals. Sixty-one adult tibiae were examined, 32 left and 29 right. Radiocarbon dating yields an antiquity of 1015–1210 AD. We have obtained an overall success rate of 88.5% for the molecular sexing, and of 90.16% for the uniparental markers. Short tandem repeats (STR) profiles were also possible for 45.9% of the samples. This performance is a consequence of the good conservation of the bones in their archaeological context. The mtDNA composition of the sample is characterized by the complete fixation of the H1-16260 lineage. These results can be explained by a mixture of consecutive founding events, a bottleneck episode at the beginning of the colonization and / or as a consequence of genetic drift.

Paternal lineages were also affected by these processes but in a less acute way. These differences lead us to propose social behaviors as an explanation for this difference. The maternal transmission of the lineages, mentioned in ethnohistorical sources of the Archipelago, could be an explanation. These results could be in agreement with endogamous practices, but the autosomal STR results indicate a relative high diversity. These results have allowed us to characterize the Punta Azul cave population and see the way in which geographical isolation, the process of adaptation and specific social behaviors affected the aboriginal population of the Island.




Bei der kritischen Bewertung der diesbezüglichen Publikationen lässt sich auch die Aussage, die Ureinwohner der Kanaren stammten von den Berbern ab, nicht aufrechterhalten.

Es gibt sehr viele unterschiedliche Berberstämme. Ich nenne mal einige. Die tunesischen Berber: Jerbian, Chenini (Chenenaouia), Douiret, Jradou und die Sened (Sundai). Die marokkanischen Berber: die Schlöh (Masmouda-Gruppe), Marrakesh, Kabylen und die Sanhaija-Gruppe. Dann die Tuareg, die Matmata Berber, die Mozabite, die Ouled Nail, Zenate und Moyen.

Sie sind genetisch nicht einheitlich.


a  Arredi et al. 2004
b  Dugoujon et. al. 2009
c  Ennafaa et al. 2011
d  Karima Fathlaoudi-Zid et al. 2011
e  Karima Fathlaoudi-Zid et al. 2011
f  Karima Fathlaoudi-Zid et al. 2011
g Ottoni et al. 2011

Schon allein aus dieser Zusammenstellung wird ersichtlich, dass die Zuordnung von E-M78 als unzweifelhaftes Kennzeichen der Berber nicht haltbar ist. Das Ergebnis der Untersuchung von Cruciani, das ich oben schon beschrieben habe, erhärtet diese Annahme.

Nur das Vorkommen von Typ E-M81 kann als eindeutiges Zeichen für eine Verwandtschaft mit Berbern gewertet werden. Das sind auf Hierro 43% und bei einer gemischten Gruppe von Mumien mehrerer kanarischen Inseln ein Anteil von 26,6%. Wenn ich die beiden Gruppen vereinige ergibt sich für E-M81 ein Anteil in Höhe von 32%.

In den bisher untersuchten Mumien von Altkanariern gibt es etwa ein Drittel mit derselben Y-Chromosom Haplogruppe, die bei vielen verschiedenen Berbergruppen den Hauptanteil darstellt.

Die Altkanarier stammen deswegen nicht von den Berbern ab.

Dieses Drittel unter den Altkanariern bedeutet allerdings nicht zwangsläufig., dass diese von den Berbern abstammen. Dieser Befund lässt sich genauso mit gemeinsamen Vorfahren von Berbern und den entsprechenden Altkanariern erklären. 

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